Apple intake in relation to prostate cancer in Iranian men: a case-control study
Askari F1*,Rashidkhani B2 1 MS of nutrition, Students' Research Committee, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 2 Community Nutrition Department, Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
faezeh askari, firstname.lastname@example.org
Background: Prostate cancer is the most frequent cancer among males in economically developed countries. Among the several risk factors that have been suggested for prostate cancer, only age, ethnicity, and family history of prostate cancer are well-established and primary prevention of this disease is limited. Prior studies had shown that dietary intake could be modified to reduce cancer risk. Most of the data in this area have been drawn from Western world studies and there isn’t enough published data in developing countries. We conducted this study to examine the association between apple intake and the risk of prostate cancer in Iran.
Methods: We conducted a hospital-based, case–control study to examine the association between apple intake and the risk of prostate cancer in Iran. Cases were patients aged 40–78 years who were admitted to ‘Labbafi-Nejad Hospital’ with incident, histologically confirmed cancers of the prostate. Cases were diagnosed not before 6 months of the interview, with no history of cancers of other sites. Controls were patients (43-71years) who were admitted to the emergency service of the same hospital without neoplastic conditions and long-term modification of diet. Cases and controls were frequency matched according to the age (10-year groups). A total of fifty patients with prostate cancer and a hundred controls underwent face-to-face interviews. We assessed participants’ dietary intakes during the past year by using a valid and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). This FFQ consists of 168 food items with standard serving sizes.Proportional hazards regression methods were used to assess the associations between apple intake and prostate cancer risk. The SPSS version 16 was used for analyzing the data.
Results: We observed a strong significant inverse association between apple intake and the risk of prostate cancer .(high: second median v. low: first median, OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05, 0.5) .
Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that apple intake might be inversely associated with prostate cancer.
Key words: prostate cancer; diet; apple; case control study