Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease
Parsa Yousefi Chaijan1, Mojtaba Sharafkha2*, Bahman Salehi3, Mohammad Rafiei4 1. Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak/Iran. email@example.com 2. (Corresponding Author) Medical student, Students Research Committee ,School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak/Iran. firstname.lastname@example.org 3. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak/Iran email@example.com 4. Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak/Iran. Rafeie@yahoo.com
Background and Objective: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurological disorder.This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to compare it with healthy children.
Methods: Seventy five 5-16-year-old children with early stages of CKD (stage 1, 2 and 3) and 75 healthy children without CKD were included in this case – control study as case and control groups, respectively. The participants were selected from those children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak (Iran) in the form of simple probability and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale – 48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV criteria and was confirmed by a psychologist consultant. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS18.
Results: ADHD inattentive type was observed in 8 cases (10.6%) with CKD and 2 controls (2.6%) (P = 0.109). Moreover, in the case and control groups, 7 (9.3%) and 6 (8%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (p = 0.997), and 9 (12%) and 12 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (p = 0.664), respectively.
Conclusion: No differences were found between the prevalence of ADHD in the children with early stages of CKDand the control group. However, due to the importance of the relationships between different types of psychiatric disorders and CKD and lack of enough evidence concerning the relationship between ADHD and different stages of CKD in children, conducting further studies in this field is recommended.
Key Words: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Children, Chronic Kidney Disease